requires grantees to
performance metrics for
activities to construct,
structures to protect
the public, including
members of protected
from natural hazards,
influenced by climate
change. Grantees should
align their mitigation
measures and resilience
performance metrics with
hazard mitigation plans
submitted to FEMA or
other state, local, or
tribal hazard mitigation
plans. Grantees must
establish the following
An estimate of the projected risk to the completed activity from natural hazards, including those hazards that are influenced by climate change (e.g., high winds destroying newly built homes),
Identification of the mitigation measures that will address the projected risks (e.g., using building materials that are able to withstand high winds), and
An assessment of the benefit of the grantee’s measures through verifiable data (e.g., 10 newly built homes will withstand high winds up to 100 mph).
all newly constructed
infrastructure that is assisted
with CDBG-DR funds must be
designed and constructed in a
resilient manner to withstand
extreme weather events and the
impacts of climate change. The
resiliency planning requirements
and best practices are described
Emphasize high quality, durability, energy efficiency, sustainability, and mold resistance;
Support adoption and enforcement of modern and/or resilient building codes and mitigation of natural hazard risk, including climate-related risks (e.g., sea level rise, high winds, storm surge, flooding, volcanic eruption, and wildfire risk, where appropriate) and provide for accessible building codes and standards, as applicable;
Establish and support recovery efforts by funding feasible, cost-effective measures that will make communities more resilient against a future disaster;
Make land-use decisions that reflect responsible and safe standards to reduce future natural hazard risks, including climate-related risks, and remove people and property out of harm’s way;
Increase awareness of the hazards in their communities (including underserved communities) through outreach to the MID areas; and
Promote sound, sustainable long-term recovery planning informed by a post-disaster evaluation of hazard risk, including climate-related natural hazards.
The term “resilient community” is building on the foundation of hazard mitigation, which focuses on reducing or eliminating loss by incorporating mitigation measures into critical infrastructure and reducing the vulnerabilities a community faces when natural disasters occur (this information comes from NIST Community Resilience toolkit which can be found here). Resilient communities take hazard mitigation a step further by actively incorporating resiliency measures when rebuilding or recovery from disaster.
Resilience planning must consider construction standards and land-use decisions that reflect responsible floodplain and wetland management and take into account continued sea level rise, if applicable; and coordinate with other local and regional planning efforts to ensure consistency. This information should be based on the history of FEMA flood mitigation efforts and take into account the projected increase in sea level (if applicable) and the frequency and intensity of precipitation events. CDBG-DR grantees must use the FEMA-approved Hazard Mitigation Plan (HMP) to inform the evaluation of hazard risk, and the HMP should be referenced in the action plan. To further inform resilience planning, FEMA also has a
Resilience Analysis and Planning tool.
The table below contains examples of common natural hazards, risks, and cascading events (this information is pulled from FEMA’s Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (THIRA) and Stakeholder Preparedness Review (SPR) Guide which can be viewed here) in the United States.
Some of the examples above are also climate-related events. FEMA defines climate changes as
“a statistically significant variation in either the mean state of the climate or in its variability, persisting for an extended period.” (pg. 54, FEMA Local Mitigation Planning Handbook)
When considering climate change, a grantee should ask the following questions:
What types of weather and climate-related events have historically caused damage in this region?
Are future climate conditions projected for this region?
What does “normal” look like during each season compared to projections?
that can be used
can be viewed at
When a significant event occurs, there are frequently cascading events or events that occur as a direct or indirect result of an initial event. To become more resilient, grantees are encouraged to use CDBG-DR funds to develop a disaster recovery and response plan that addresses long-term recovery and pre- and post-disaster hazard-mitigation, if one does not currently exist. A grantee should follow FEMA’s processes to identify hazards and risks and assess the impact of those risks.
of the hazard
what the impacts
of the hazard
would be if it
impacts of a
hazard to the
must be defined.
A risk is
as the potential
for damage or
as the people,
systems that add
value to a
severity of the
hazard to the
the risk. Once
risk must be
Important considerations when describing a hazard includes the geographic area affected by the hazard, the strength or magnitude of the hazard, the previous occurrences of the hazard and the probability for it to occur again, and climate change. A grantee can also conduct a Benefit-Cost Analysis (BCA) for a project or activity. FEMA has a created a BCA toolkit that can be used by CDBG-DR grantees when evaluating the impact of a project. The toolkit can be viewed here.
HUD worked with FEMA staff on a webinar to walk through the use of the BCA Toolkit for CDBG mitigation (CDBG-MIT) funds. While the rules and requirements for CDBG-MIT do not apply to grants under the Consolidated Notice, CDBG-DR grantees may wish to view the webinar to learn how best to use the toolkit to weigh out the costs and benefits of selected projects.
actions that can
be taken to
FEMA lists the
actions to be
used to reduce
Local plans and regulations,
Structure and infrastructure projects,
Natural system protections, and
Education and awareness programs (pg. 71) (FEMA Local Mitigation Planning Handbook)
about the types
in each action,
a grantee should
refer to FEMA’s
types of hazard
Because of the timing of CDBG-DR funds, grantees are strongly encouraged to consult with the applicable agency(ies) administering FEMA’s hazard mitigation grants and other regional mitigation grants. This is critical to understand and align its CDBG-DR program with FEMA’s mitigation efforts, when feasible, to create a consistent recovery and mitigation approach.
Incorporating construction of safe rooms in homes, shelters, and other vulnerable public structures.
Adopting wind-resistant building techniques, such as structural bracing, straps and clips, anchor bolts, reinforced pedestrian and garage doors, window shutters, waterproof adhesive sealing strips, and interlocking roof shingles.
Taking into account continued sea level rise, if applicable. This may include determining and enforcing acceptable land uses that will alleviate the risk of damage by limiting expose in the flood hazard areas.
Consulting industry standards, such as the International Building Code (IBC), International Residential Code (IRC), and the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) standards that specify minimum requirements and expected performance for the design and construction of buildings and structures in the flood hazard areas to make them more resistant to flood loads and flood damage.
A grantee’s decision to elevate structures in a particular neighborhood or local government should be cost reasonable relative to other alternative strategies, such as demolition of substantially-damaged structures with reconstruction of the structure on the same site, property buyouts, or infrastructure improvements to prevent loss of life and mitigate future property damage.
Consult and incorporate industry standards, as appropriate, such as American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) for seismic evaluation of existing buildings, seismic rehabilitation of existing buildings; and procedures for post-earthquake safety evaluation of buildings.
Protecting critical facilities, infrastructure, and housing by incorporating seismic retrofitting, hardening, and bracing. Some common examples of this are: flexible piping when extending water, sewer, or natural gas; installing shutoff valves and emergency connector houses where water mains cross fault lines; building safe rooms to provide protections; and anchoring rooftop mounted equipment and other furniture to reduce potential future damage.
Some common examples a grantee may choose to implement to meet this requirement are:
Adopting and encouraging fire-resistant construction techniques, such as: the use of non-combustible materials (i.e., stone, brick, and stucco), fire resistant roofing and other materials, enclosing the foundations of homes and other buildings in wildfire-prone areas, prohibiting wooden shingles/wood shake roofs on any new construction in areas prone to wildfires, and encouraging functional shutters on windows.
HUD requires grantees to adopt
Resilient Building Codes
for new construction,
reconstruction, and for
rehabilitation activities of
residential buildings, grantees
are strongly encouraged to also
incorporate Resilient Home
Construction Standards into all
of their CDBG-DR programs.
FORTIFIED is an industry
recognized construction and
re-roofing program that is
designed to increase resiliency
in homes and commercial
buildings. There are two types
of FORTIFIED programs:
The FORTIFIED Home program is a risk-reduction program providing construction standards for new homes and retrofit standards for existing homes, which will increase a home’s resilience to natural hazards, including high wind, hail, and tropical storms. More information is available here.
FORTIFIED Roof level should be used for roof repair or reconstruction;
FORTIFIED Home Gold level should be used for new construction of single-family, detached home; and
FORTIFIED Home Silver level should be used for reconstruction of the roof, windows and doors in existing homes.
Home being used
for the housing
uses ring shank
rails on shingle
shank rails are
shingles and may
not be the best
choice for all
Insurers can provide discounts for homeowner’s insurance for properties certified as FORTIFIED. Grantees should advise property owners to contact their insurance agent for current information on what discounts may be available.
should be used
The grantee’s action plan should document if any of the MID areas are at risk for these types of natural hazards. The grantee can include maps such as these produced by USAA or NOAA to demonstrate the risks.